Address of the Hon. Edward Everett At the Consecration of the National Cemetery At Gettysburg, 19th November 1863, with the Dedicatory Speech of President Lincoln, and the Other Exercises of the Occasion; Accompanied by An Account of the Origin of the Undertaking and of the Arrangement of the Cemetery Grounds, and by a Map of the Battle-field and a Plan of the Cemetery

                                                                                 Little, Brown and Company, 1864

TrueScans of this eighty-eight page book are presented below.

An impartial study of the material will reveal that the manuscript:

(a) Endeavors to be quite complete as it touches all major aspects of the ceremony -- (Ref. "Title" and "Table of Contents")

(b) Gives a very factual accounting of the three day Battle at Gettysburg which took place from July 1 thru July 3, 1863.

It gives details on troop movements leading up to the battle and describes how and when each side became aware the point of conflagration was to be at Gettysburg. (Ref. Pages 39 thru first paragraph of Page 44)

It renders a particular accounting of Lee's failure to attack during the early morning hours of the 2nd of July; thereby (at least in Everett's opinion) swinging tactical advantage away from the Rebels. (Ref. Page 51)

The narrative explains how the Union troops pursued Lee, starting on the 4th of July, after his retreat from Gettysburg (Ref. pages 56 thru 58)

It indicates that Major-General George G. Meade directed one Colonel Theodore Lyman, an aide, to draw-up an accounting of this battle for Everett . Apparently, Everett incorporated this information, along with other very important details supplied by Lyman, into his book prior to the formal release of General Meade's official report. Everett had the benefit also of having received "very valuable documents relative to the battle from Major-General Halleck, Commander-in-Chief of the army". He also received expert military assistance in creating the "sketch of the campaign" as interpreted from troop movements that were contained in manuscripts furnished by the Adjutant-General's Office. Such composite description of the battle then was compared against General Lee's July 31, 1863 official report, as well as a report on the three day battle appearing in a September issue of Blackwood's Magazine. General Meade's official report did finally reach Everett but the morning before his accounting actually went to press. (Ref. Page 45 thru 47 Footnotes)

Only a direct comparison which has been made between Everett's rendition of the three day Gettysburg Battle and General Meade's official report would serve to reveal how closely the details of each actually match.

Everett's rendering of the three day Gettysburg Battle appears in TrueScans presented below.

General George G. Meade's official report appears in the following website:

(c) Renders details on the actual Procession and shows where dignitaries were situated relative to each other during their advancement, thereby giving a rare in-depth perception of the social order of the day as it might have existed between President Lincoln, the Congress, and the remainder of the audience. (Ref. Page 22 in the book)

(d) Presents many official letters and responses giving color to the overall conduct of the ceremony. Perhaps the most poignant of these letters being that drafted by General Meade on November 13, 1863 and directed to David Wills, being the Agent for the Governor of Pennsylvania at the time. This very touching letter points out that Meade's very own troops, themselves, having personally witnessed the deaths of many of their own "comrades in arms" on the field at the battle of Gettysburg, had deeper interest than any others in attending the ceremony intended to be held there. However, the General's letter ironically concludes by declining such fitting attendance of these very same soldiers because of their remaining duties, or responsibilities, during a time of raging, ferocious war.(Ref. Page 18 in the text)

(e) Includes an accurately illustrated, detailed and complete Gettysburg Battlefield Map. It shows North and South troop battle line compositions, and denotes respective commanding officer jurisdictions for each side. It denotes a "Rebel" and "Union Line. The map establishes pinpoint locations of ridges and other notable defining aspects of the battlefield. In connection with the book's description of the battle, it contributes greatly to the reader's sense of understanding of how the battle took place. (Ref. Page residing opposite to the (second) Title page of the book)

(f) Presents Plans for how the cemetery was to be laid out. The included map depicts proportions of those Union troops killed by state. Pennsylvania, the state in which Gettysburg is situated, and New York suffered the greatest number of killed Union soldiers.(Ref. Pages 8 and 9)

(g) Emphasizes relative troop strengths:

Whole Rebel Army -- 105,000 strong consisting of:

90,000 infantry (Ref. Pg 41)

10,000 cavalry (Ref. Pg 41)

4,000 to 5,000 artillery (Ref. Pg 41)

General Hancock's official report estimated the armies to be of equal size. However, just before publication, Everett corrected the text in his book to read as follows: (ref. Footnote page 50)

"Superiority of numbers was with the enemy" (ref. page 55)

(h) Reports battle casualties

Union Army casualties:

2,834 killed (Ref. Pg 59)

13,709 wounded (Ref. Pg 59)

6,643 missing (Ref. Pg 59)

Total: 23,186 wounded, killed, missing

Confederate Army casualties:

13,621 taken prisoner (Ref. Pg 59)

23,000 wounded, killed, missing (Ref. Pg 59)

Total: 36,621 Rebel's killed, wounded, missing, and taken prisoner

37,000 Rebels killed, wounded and missing (Ref. Pg 55)

(i) Includes an 1864 publication of the Gettysburg Address ; preceded by November 1863 newspaper printings, two of which are shown below.

And so last , but foremost, this perhaps most famous piece of all American literature found itself a true home, finally residing almost at the very rear of a book which featured the Honorable Edward Everett's Speech.

A curious, answer-seeking public might have asked over the years:

Why did such a great work receive second billing in this book's title; and why did it actually get emplaced towards the very end of the book?

In reply:  being that Abraham Lincoln was known for his humility, he may well have found himself very comfortable with the prospect of speaking towards the very end of the dedication. The book merely might have attempted to preserve this sequence of speeches by actually reporting them exactly as they took place, or occurred, at the ceremony. Most probably, nobody will ever know for sure why Lincoln reserved his speech for the end of the ceremony. Perhaps he was just given this slot for speaking by someone else whose responsibility it was to organize the event; or, perhaps it might have been Lincoln's own idea, knowing full well what very important words he was about to carry to the public! In any event, it may have been a very good strategy to place the most impacting of speeches last, especially when being the shortest; thereby building up general interest in the audience for a delivery which catches them in their most passive, but yet most receptive state; hoping to promote the greatest listening potential from a public who was about to receive the "Great Oration".

In time, such speech not only would rival, but perhaps even eclipse one which appeared in a prior generation; one developed to a tee by none other than Sir William Shakespeare! For it was, in Act 3, Scene 2, line 3 of Julius Caesar that he penned,

"Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; [for]

"I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him".

But, getting back to the Gettysburg Address -- One other presently unanswered question yet looms:

In what manner was the structure (or contents) of the Gettysburg Address established, so as to enable it to become such a great work?

In reply: It seems plausible that a collective association having involved various authorities of the day most probably took place between the July 1863 Gettysburg battle and the November 1863 cemetery consecration. During such time important input, as it might pertain to a higher national purpose surfaced; that is, was brought out, or became further realized and understood due to the Gettysburg experience. During further discussions, ideas became exchanged and people took further time to reflect upon this perceived purpose. Such continued collaboration in itself, most probably, then instilled an even keener interest and respective greater understanding of such purpose; thereby serving to elevate it even higher; propelling it to its greatest potential. And such higher purpose, recognized or typified by its associated very high achievement, only may become realized, or gained, within (or through) a free society.

During the days when Einstein made great strides in relativity, opening up the door to the nuclear age, collaborating thermodynamic authorities and developing physicists inspired a greater motivation amongst each other. This, in turn, became a seed which served to engender the cultivation of a higher scientific purpose. Similarly, so did Lincoln participate in a discourse with his own colleagues, coterie of friends, and retinue of interested people, serving to churn up, and thereby elevate this so-called "Gettysburg Purpose" into a formulation of ideas and principles that remains unparalleled to this date; one that is to endure for the benefit of all humanity!

And so, TrueScans is now proud to introduce (as shown further below) on this Memorial Day of 2011 what is believed to be the very first book form appearance of this famous keystone of American rhetoric, a very cornerstone to modern literature, the Gettysburg Address -- one of the most enduring works of all time!

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